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Degrees of Freedom – The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912 - Minnesota Scholarship Online
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Degrees of Freedom: The Origins of Civil Rights in Minnesota, 1865-1912

William D. Green


Spanning the half-century after the Civil War, Degrees of Freedom draws a rare picture of black experience in a northern state and of the nature of black discontent and action within a predominantly white, ostensibly progressive society. William D. Green reveals little-known historical characters among the black men and women who moved to Minnesota following the Fifteenth Amendment; worked as farmhands and laborers; built communities (such as Pig’s Eye Landing, later renamed St. Paul), businesses, and a newspaper (the Western Appeal); and embodied the slow but inexorable advancement of race re ... More

Keywords: Black history, Civil rights history, Minnesota history, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. De Bois, Ida B. Wells, Frank Wheaton, Frederick McGhee, NAACP

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2015 Print ISBN-13: 9780816693467
Published to Minnesota Scholarship Online: January 2016 DOI:10.5749/minnesota/9780816693467.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

William D. Green, author
Professor of History, Augsburg College