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City ChoreographerLawrence Halprin in Urban Renewal America$
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Alison Bick Hirsch

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780816679782

Published to Minnesota Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816679782.001.0001

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Facilitation and/Or Manipulation

Facilitation and/Or Manipulation

The Challenges of Taking Part in Fort Worth, Everett, Charlottesville, and Cleveland

(p.209) 5. Facilitation and/Or Manipulation
City Choreographer

Alison Bick Hirsch

University of Minnesota Press

Chapter Five considers Taking Part in Everett (Washington), Charlottesville (Virginia), and Cleveland (Ohio). Despite claims that the process was open-ended, Halprin and his firm clearly had preconceived objectives, yet guided the participants to reach these conclusions themselves. While this might seem counter to the principles of participation, the firm often succeeded in reshaping shortsighted attitudes toward the city that diminished its quality of experience. The chapter ends with an assessment of what might be learned from this tension between facilitation and manipulation, particularly as it relates to widespread debates on participatory planning ongoing today.

Keywords:   Lawrence Halprin, Anna Halprin, urban renewal, landscape architecture, participatory planning, urban design, choreography, creative process

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