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Black Star, Crescent MoonThe Muslim International and Black Freedom beyond America$
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Sohail Daulatzai

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780816675852

Published to Minnesota Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816675852.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM MINNESOTA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.minnesota.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Minnesota Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MNSO for personal use.date: 07 July 2022

Return of the Mecca

Return of the Mecca

Public Enemies, Reaganism, and the Birth of Hip-Hop

(p.89) 3 Return of the Mecca
Black Star, Crescent Moon

Sohail Daulatzai

University of Minnesota Press

This chapter discusses the aesthetic and political dimensions of the Muslim International through hip-hop culture during a period when the “Black criminal” and the “Muslim terrorist” were viewed as fundamental threats to U.S. national identity. Through the resurgence of Malcolm X and the embrace of Black Islam, hip-hop culture in the 1980s and 1990s tapped into Black internationalism to challenge racial domination, militarism, and mass incarceration, imagining Black freedom beyond the United States and into Africa and the Muslim Third World. The hip-hop culture—like jazz and the Black Arts Movement—became a space where Black radicalism, Islam, and Muslim Third World politics would have a strong influence, interpreted through lyrics that have been expressed by various artists such as Rakim, Public Enemy, Mos Def, Ice Cube, and many others.

Keywords:   Muslim International, hip-hop culture, Black internationalism, Black Islam, Black criminal, Muslim terrorist, Black radicalism

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