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Gay Rights at the Ballot Box$
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Amy L. Stone

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780816675470

Published to Minnesota Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816675470.001.0001

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Losing at Same-Sex Marriage

Losing at Same-Sex Marriage

Rethinking Ballot Measure Tactics

(p.129) Chapter 5 Losing at Same-Sex Marriage
Gay Rights at the Ballot Box

Amy L. Stone

University of Minnesota Press

This chapter examines changes in the tactics used by the LGBT movement in response to the passage of numerous statewide anti-gay ballot measures, such as Proposition 8 in California. The movement’s losses started during the November 2004 General Election, where it won only eight of the thirty-eight referendums and initiatives on the ballot. This losing streak continued for five years, reaching its peak with the passage of Proposition 8 in 2008 which prohibited same-sex marriage. This string of defeats led LGBT campaigners to rethink the model campaign, turning their focus to movement building and efficacy and also changing their approach to messaging.

Keywords:   LGBT movement, 2004 General Election, anti-gay ballot measure, referendums, initiatives, Proposition 8, messaging, same-sex marriage, California

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