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X-Marks – Native Signatures of Assent - Minnesota Scholarship Online
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X-Marks: Native Signatures of Assent

Scott Lyons


During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, North American Indian leaders commonly signed treaties with the European powers and the American and Canadian governments with an X, signifying their presence and assent to the terms. These x-marks indicated coercion (because the treaties were made under unfair conditions), resistance (because they were often met with protest), and acquiescence (to both a European modernity and the end of a particular moment of Indian history and identity). This book explores the complexity of contemporary Indian identity and current debates among Indians about t ... More

Keywords: x-mark, Native Americans, X, traditionalism, nationalism, tribalism, Leech Lake Ojibwe Reservation, Ojibwe language

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2010 Print ISBN-13: 9780816666768
Published to Minnesota Scholarship Online: August 2015 DOI:10.5749/minnesota/9780816666768.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Scott Lyons, author
Assistant Professor of English

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