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Gameplay ModeWar, Simulation, and Technoculture$
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Patrick Crogan

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780816653348

Published to Minnesota Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.5749/minnesota/9780816653348.001.0001

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From the Military-Industrial to the Military-Entertainment Complex

From the Military-Industrial to the Military-Entertainment Complex

(p.1) 1 From the Military-Industrial to the Military-Entertainment Complex
Gameplay Mode

Patrick Crogan

University of Minnesota Press

This chapter discusses three influential developments in the emergence of the computerized platform for simulational practices. These include Norbert Wiener’s invention in the 1940s of cybernetics on the back of work on an antiaircraft weapons system; the U.S. Air Force’s 1950s–1960s Semi-Automated Ground Environment project, which kick-started the American computing industry in its flawed effort to shield America from nuclear attack by virtualizing it in real time; and the development in the 1980s of SIMNET as a networked simulation training system that put in place much of the technology and expertise subtending the 1990s explosion in real time networked games. The three key elements of these developments are the cybernetic approach to modeling complex phenomena, realtime interactive control through virtualization, and the convergence of simulated and real events.

Keywords:   simulational practices, Norbert Wiener, Semi-Automated Ground Environment project, U.S. Airforce, cybernetic, SIMNET

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